TESOL Thoughts

Reflections on Teaching and Learning

“Native and Non-Native Language Speaker” Labels: A Flawed Dichotomy

Disclaimer:  The use of the terms Native Speaker and Non Native Speaker is broad and one on which there is ample research. This post is very personal (not academic) and does not cite research because it is meant to show my current thoughts and reflection on the matter. I do plan on conducting research on this issue and writing an academic piece in the future, but I wanted to publish this reflection on my blog now for anyone who might be interested in my view on the labels currently used to categorize English language speakers.


Photo by Tom Waterhouse on Flickr. Licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0


I am not trying to be politically correct here, but continuous use of the words “native speaker” by professionals in our field needs to stop. We have got to find a more accurate and inclusive way to refer to English language speakers because the native speaker (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) dichotomy is flawed, and in my view, a disservice to everyone involved in English language learning and teaching.

First of all, why do people often use the labels “native speaker” or “non-native speaker?” I’ve listed some of the common reasons that come to my mind. Feel free to add others in the comment section if you’d like.

  1. To identify English language speakers who are proficient in their language use.
  2. To signal correctness over language use, e.g., identifying accurate language use on whether a “native speaker” would say/pronounce/use X language item in X way.
  3. To clarify when someone has acquired English as an additional language.


So why do I believe these terms should not be used?

One does not need to be a native speaker to be a highly proficient English language user. English is a lingua franca, and the majority of English speakers in the world did not learn English as their first language. In fact, so-called native speakers comprise the minority of English language users around the world. If we want models of proficient speakers, we do not need to consider nationality or language learned at birth –both factors which do not guarantee proficiency anyhow. My own identity as an English speaker can serve as an example here. English and Italian were my first languages. When I was six years old, I spoke both as fluently as any child would. However, I left the US at a young age and did not get a chance to use English often. When I came back to the US at seventeen, I had to take ESL classes and certainly did not fit in the “native speaker” category. Am I a native speaker now? Does it even matter? Personally, I prefer the term multilingual. Calling anyone a non-native speaker signals a lack of something. There is this otherness implied that does not sit well with me. Why define someone’s language skills by what they are not, especially when even being a native speaker can represent so many different language uses?

This brings me to the second point. While often people want to know how a native speaker would say something –assuming this would be the correct language use- many people who learned English as their first language might use varieties of English that are not acceptable in different contexts. Think of regional differences in the way English is used. That inside sensor telling someone that an expression or way to use language “just sounds right” only goes so far if we have a global perspective in mind.

Finally, some may say that the point in using these terms is to clarify when someone learned English later on in life as opposed to learning the language as a child. But I’d like to ask you, why should that matter?

Truly knowing a language involves much more than merely learning how to speak, read or write as a child. As an English teacher, knowing the language involves awareness about the way we acquire language; this is what helps us make better decisions when we plan our lessons. Our passports, skin color, or how we learned the language as children does not have an impact on how well our students learn; however, you would be forgiven for not thinking this if you took a look at ads looking for unqualified English teachers from certain nationalities. This is where inequity and exclusion are most blatant when it comes to the use of NS and NNS labels in our field.

Screen Shot 2016-01-24 at 11.03.27 AM

Employment ad posted on esltecherrecruitment.com. Retrieved 1/26/16.


Each time we equate the terms native speaker with proficient speaker in an academic setting, we are doing a disservice to English language learners and the many proficient English language teachers who at one point were English language learners themselves.

When I attend an event for English teachers and I continuously hear the presenter referring to NS grammar use vs. ESL grammar use, I have to wonder where I fit in the conversation. What about English teachers who learned English as adults? Where is their “grammar use” represented in this dichotomy?

When students are told they should interview native speakers to practice English or visit a native speaker tutor, there is an implicit message conveyed that proficient non-native speakers will not be as helpful. That is simply incorrect. In fact, a person who speaks English as an additional language might be a great model of a successful language learner for students.

I am aware that these terms will be around for a while. However, I think it is our job to stop using them, to call out discriminatory job ads, and to ask colleagues and others in our field to reconsider their use of these terms. There are so many alternatives, e.g., proficient English language speaker, bilingual, multilingual speaker. How about embracing one that is more accurate and inclusive?

If you are interested in learning more about this subject, I highly recommend checking out TEFL Equity Advocates. On their site, you can find a collection of anti-discriminatory statements shared by both governmental organizations and prominent professional groups in our field.









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16 thoughts on ““Native and Non-Native Language Speaker” Labels: A Flawed Dichotomy

  1. crazymethinks on said:


    Thank you for your lovely post. I have experienced this form of torture too. Ultimately having lost my confidence in the language itself. Makes me wonder why did I even learn the language in the first place when I am obviously the lesser accepted non-native speaker.

    Thanks again for your post.

    • Thanks for commenting! And yes, I wonder if people maintaining the status-quo when it comes to NES/NNES terms realize how excluding they can be to people in general, but especially in our profession. Have you checked out the work done by TESOL’s NNEST Interest Section? It’s quite empowering!

      • crazymethinks on said:

        Hey there… thanks for your reply… People are just racists and discriminatory on today’s world i suppose. Why do they have TEFL open for non-natives in the first place is something that beats me…. As for the TESOL’s NNEST Interest Section, no actually I haven’t quite checked it… But I shall do it now…. 🙂

      • The NNEST IS an incredibly welcoming and inspiring group. I’ve learned recently that NNEST discriminatory comments can come even from people we least expect it, people who are getting doctorate degrees and studying these issues. It’s a challenge we have ahead, but an important discussion for us all.

  2. Hey there!

    I completely agree with you. I live in Colombia, and have a similar backstory. I was born in Colombia and grew up hearing Spanish, and when I was three years old moved to New York and from then on I learned English and spoke Spanish at home. I lived and studied in the states until I was 14 years old and then came back to Colombia. So… I have been asked many times if I am a “native” speaker. The term never quite fits, because to be honest I’m not sure. What I do know is I am proficient so I love what you say “One does not need to be a native speaker to be a highly proficient English language user.”

    Great read! And hopefully it will catch on that more and more “non-native” speakers are even becoming more proficient than “native” speakers. So we need new terms that can correctly identify the ever-changing world we live in today.

    • Thanks for commenting! Happy to hear this post resonated with you. I suspect that are many of us that do not quite fit in, and even though some could say we’re a minority, the point is that we prove how inaccurate these NNS and NS are. We need to celebrate our multilingualism and that of our learners. Words are powerful 🙂

      PS: I also grew up a good chunk of my life in Colombia (Cali). Nice to meet you!

      • Really? Great! Nice to meet you too. Yea, but I think as time passes things will naturally fall into place and these new terms have to start emerging, both for students as well as lifelong learners.

  3. Tyson Seburn on said:

    Wholly agreed. Beyond even simply using the term, we all need to be more cognisant of the resources and ads we share that involve these terms. Very often I notice ELT colleagues who agree and are part of this discussion that still flippantly share job ads or related links where these terms are used as qualifications, without realising it. It reflects badly on their choices in what to share.

    • Thanks for commenting, Tyson. You make an excellent point! It could make a big difference in our field if all of us start calling out these practices by not sharing job posts that keep the status quo and by calling out discrimination as we see it happen.

  4. Pingback: CamTESOL - How We Think About Local Teachers | Clare Harris

  5. Sam C on said:

    Excellent. How does one prove they are a native speaker of English on a job application or in an interview? What is a neutral accent? What’s so much better about English in US, UK, NZ, CA (I mean I see one obvious similarity, but REALLY?!)? Is there any other field of education that openly displays such racism?

    • Hey Sam! Nice to “see you” around, and thanks for commenting. I agree with you about our field openly displaying racism. And it’s amazing that sometimes this “nativespeakerism” even translates into the workplace, but there’s where you and I can make a difference. It’s our job to call it out. Would love to chat with you in person sometime!

  6. Funny I should read this now because I just wrote an article on “native speakers” and the English language. Personally, I use the term “native speaker” because that seems to be the only way to prove to people that I can speak English although I was raised in an Asian country. I get that your article is showing how inherently wrong it is that I have to do that in the first place and I definitely agree!

    • Thanks for commenting, Ainslee! I can relate to the ease of using the term when it comes to people understanding your degree of fluency in the language. It’s so frustrating that it has to be that way. Where to do you live?

      • I live in London at the moment! But I was born and raised in Singapore. So with a different accent and look, people are always quick to assume I don’t speak English well enough!

  7. Hi Laura! I didn’t get to read this post until now. This is a topic that makes me feel like I chose the wrong job to do. You can’t imagine how much discrimination there is in Spain and people defend it when you try to make them see it. Just ridiculous.

    In the Basque country, they decided not to use terms of “non-something” but they chose the terms “euskaldun berri” (new Basque) and “euskaldun zahar” (old Basque). But then, I speak Basque since I was 2, but only learned it in school and couldn’t use it anywhere else. So I’m a “lower-class old Basque” because the term was thought for people who learned Basque at home, which is not my case, but I learned it in a natural way, not as a foreign language, and at an early age… Where do I (and many more people like me, which is a common situation in towns and cities here) fit? Who is going to tell me what I am?

    My PhD is in Basque linguistics. I am studying family language policy and attitudes etc. I’ll let you know if the “nativespeakerism” appears.

    Thank you for the post!

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